Fiscal Monitor (FM) [FM]

The Fiscal Monitor surveys and analyzes the latest public finance developments, it updates fiscal implications of the crisis and medium-term fiscal projections, and assesses policies to put public finances on a sustainable footing.


Temporal Coverage: The Fiscal Monitor data are presented in annual frequency.

Geographic Coverage: The Fiscal Monitor database covers 115 countries and several regional aggregates (see "Economy Groupings" for more details).

Sectoral Coverage: General Government and Public Sector

Code: FM

Timeliness: The Fiscal Monitor database is updated twice a year by the IMF’s Fiscal Affairs Department.

Methodology: The Fiscal Monitor surveys and analyzes the latest public finance developments, it updates fiscal implications of the crisis and medium-term fiscal projections, and assesses policies to put public finances on a sustainable footing.

Country-specific data and projections for key fiscal variables are based on the April 2020 World Economic Outlook database, unless indicated otherwise, and compiled by the IMF staff. Historical data and projections are based on information gathered by IMF country desk officers in the context of their missions and through their ongoing analysis of the evolving situation in each country; they are updated on a continual basis as more information becomes available. Structural breaks in data may be adjusted to produce smooth series through splicing and other techniques. IMF staff estimates serve as proxies when complete information is unavailable. As a result, Fiscal Monitor data can differ from official data in other sources, including the IMF’s International Financial Statistics.

The country classification in the Fiscal Monitor divides the world into three major groups: 35 advanced economies, 40 emerging market and middle-income economies, and 40 low-income developing countries. The seven largest advanced economies as measured by GDP (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States) constitute the subgroup of major advanced economies, often referred to as the Group of Seven (G7). The members of the euro area are also distinguished as a subgroup. Composite data shown in the tables for the euro area cover the current members for all years, even though the membership has increased over time. Data for most European Union member countries have been revised following the adoption of the new European System of National and Regional Accounts (ESA 2010). The low-income developing countries (LIDCs) are countries that have per capita income levels below a certain threshold (currently set at $2,700 in 2016 as measured by the World Bank’s Atlas method), structural features consistent with limited development and structural transformation, and external financial linkages insufficiently close to be widely seen as emerging market economies. Zimbabwe is included in the group. Emerging market and middle-income economies include those not classified as advanced economies or low-income developing countries. See Table A, “Economy Groupings,” for more details.

Most fiscal data refer to the general government for advanced economies, while for emerging markets and developing economies, data often refer to the central government or budgetary central government only (for specific details, see Tables B–D). All fiscal data refer to the calendar years, except in the cases of Bangladesh, Egypt, Ethiopia, Haiti, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, India, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Singapore, and Thailand, for which they refer to the fiscal year.

Composite data for country groups are weighted averages of individual-country data, unless otherwise specified. Data are weighted by annual nominal GDP converted to U.S. dollars at average market exchange rates as a share of the group GDP.

In many countries, fiscal data follow the IMF’s Government Finance Statistics Manual 2014. The overall fiscal balance refers to net lending (+) and borrowing (–) of the general government. In some cases, however, the overall balance refers to total revenue and grants minus total expenditure and net lending.

The fiscal gross and net debt data reported in the Fiscal Monitor are drawn from official data sources and IMF staff estimates. While attempts are made to align gross and net debt data with the definitions in the IMF’s Government Finance Statistics Manual, as a result of data limitations or specific country circumstances, these data can sometimes deviate from the formal definitions. Although every effort is made to ensure the debt data are relevant and internationally comparable,

Updated by provider on October 11, 2023 (12:00 AM)

Frequency [FREQ]
Reference Area [REF_AREA]
Indicator [INDICATOR]

Dataset has 1,352 series. Add search filters to narrow them.

Dimension codes and labels
[FREQ] Frequency
  • [A] Annual
[REF_AREA] Reference Area
  • [1C_035] Emerging Market and Middle-Income Economies
  • [1C_230] Low-Income Asia
  • [1C_231] Low-Income Latin America
  • [1C_232] Low-Income Sub-Saharan Africa
  • [1C_234] Low-Income Others
  • [1C_235] Low-Income Oil Producers
  • [1C_EMEUR] Emerging Europe
  • [1C_EMFLAT] Emerging Market Latin America
  • [1C_EMMENAP] Emerging Market and Middle-Income Middle East and North Africa and Pakistan
  • [1C_Oil_producers] Oil producers
  • [AD] Andorra
  • [AE] United Arab Emirates
  • [AF] Afghanistan
  • [AG] Antigua and Barbuda
  • [AL] Albania
  • [AM] Armenia
  • [AO] Angola
  • [AR] Argentina
  • [AT] Austria
  • [AU] Australia
  • [AW] Aruba
  • [AZ] Azerbaijan
  • [BA] Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • [BB] Barbados
  • [BD] Bangladesh
  • [BE] Belgium
  • [BF] Burkina Faso
  • [BG] Bulgaria
  • [BH] Bahrain
  • [BI] Burundi
  • [BJ] Benin
  • [BN] Brunei Darussalam
  • [BO] Bolivia
  • [BR] Brazil
  • [BS] Bahamas
  • [BT] Bhutan
  • [BW] Botswana
  • [BY] Belarus
  • [BZ] Belize
  • [CA] Canada
  • [CD] Congo, the Democratic Republic of the
  • [CF] Central African Republic
  • [CG] Congo
  • [CH] Switzerland
  • [CI] Cote d`Ivoire
  • [CL] Chile
  • [CM] Cameroon
  • [CN] China
  • [CO] Colombia
  • [CR] Costa Rica
  • [CV] Cabo Verde
  • [CY] Cyprus
  • [CZ] Czech Republic
  • [DE] Germany
  • [DJ] Djibouti
  • [DK] Denmark
  • [DM] Dominica
  • [DO] Dominican Republic
  • [DZ] Algeria
  • [EC] Ecuador
  • [EE] Estonia
  • [EG] Egypt
  • [ER] Eritrea
  • [ES] Spain
  • [ET] Ethiopia
  • [FI] Finland
  • [FJ] Fiji
  • [FM] Micronesia, Federated States of
  • [FR] France
  • [GA] Gabon
  • [GB] United Kingdom
  • [GD] Grenada
  • [GE] Georgia
  • [GH] Ghana
  • [GM] Gambia
  • [GN] Guinea
  • [GQ] Equatorial Guinea
  • [GR] Greece
  • [GT] Guatemala
  • [GW] Guinea-Bissau
  • [GY] Guyana
  • [HK] Hong Kong, China
  • [HN] Honduras
  • [HR] Croatia
  • [HT] Haiti
  • [HU] Hungary
  • [ID] Indonesia
  • [IE] Ireland
  • [IL] Israel
  • [IN] India
  • [IQ] Iraq
  • [IR] Iran, Islamic Republic of
  • [IS] Iceland
  • [IT] Italy
  • [JM] Jamaica
  • [JO] Jordan
  • [JP] Japan
  • [KE] Kenya
  • [KG] Kyrgyzstan
  • [KH] Cambodia
  • [KI] Kiribati
  • [KM] Comoros
  • [KN] Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • [KR] Korea, Republic of
  • [KW] Kuwait
  • [KZ] Kazakhstan
  • [LA] Lao People`s Democratic Republic
  • [LB] Lebanon
  • [LC] Saint Lucia
  • [LK] Sri Lanka
  • [LR] Liberia
  • [LS] Lesotho
  • [LT] Lithuania
  • [LU] Luxembourg
  • [LV] Latvia
  • [LY] Libya
  • [MA] Morocco
  • [MD] Moldova, Republic of
  • [ME] Montenegro
  • [MG] Madagascar
  • [MH] Marshall islands
  • [MK] North Macedonia, Republic of
  • [ML] Mali
  • [MM] Myanmar
  • [MN] Mongolia
  • [MO] Macao
  • [MR] Mauritania
  • [MT] Malta
  • [MU] Mauritius
  • [MV] Maldives
  • [MW] Malawi
  • [MX] Mexico
  • [MY] Malaysia
  • [MZ] Mozambique
  • [NA] Namibia
  • [NE] Niger
  • [NG] Nigeria
  • [NI] Nicaragua
  • [NL] Netherlands
  • [NO] Norway
  • [NP] Nepal
  • [NR] Nauru
  • [NZ] New Zealand
  • [OM] Oman
  • [PA] Panama
  • [PE] Peru
  • [PG] Papua New Guinea
  • [PH] Philippines
  • [PK] Pakistan
  • [PL] Poland
  • [PR] Puerto Rico
  • [PT] Portugal
  • [PW] Palau
  • [PY] Paraguay
  • [QA] Qatar
  • [R22] G20 (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, European Union, France, Germany, India,Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States)
  • [R23] Major Advanced Economies - G7
  • [RO] Romania
  • [RS] Serbia
  • [RU] Russian Federation
  • [RW] Rwanda
  • [SA] Saudi Arabia
  • [SB] Solomon Islands
  • [SC] Seychelles
  • [SD] Sudan
  • [SE] Sweden
  • [SG] Singapore
  • [SI] Slovenia
  • [SK] Slovakia
  • [SL] Sierra Leone
  • [SM] San Marino
  • [SN] Senegal
  • [SO] Somalia
  • [SR] Suriname
  • [SS] South Sudan
  • [ST] Sao Tome and Principe
  • [SV] El Salvador
  • [SY] Syrian Arab Republic
  • [SZ] Eswatini
  • [TD] Chad
  • [TG] Togo
  • [TH] Thailand
  • [TJ] Tajikistan
  • [TL] Timor-Leste
  • [TM] Turkmenistan
  • [TN] Tunisia
  • [TO] Tonga
  • [TR] Turkey
  • [TT] Trinidad and Tobago
  • [TV] Tuvalu
  • [TW] Taiwan, Province of China
  • [TZ] Tanzania, United Republic of
  • [U2] Euro area (Member States and Institutions of the Euro Area) changing composition
  • [UA] Ukraine
  • [UG] Uganda
  • [US] United States
  • [UY] Uruguay
  • [UZ] Uzbekistan
  • [VC] Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • [VE] Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic
  • [VN] Viet Nam
  • [VU] Vanuatu
  • [WS] Samoa
  • [XK] Kosovo, Republic of
  • [XR23] Advanced Economies G-20 (IMF)
  • [XR24] Emerging Economies G-20 (IMF)
  • [XR29] Advanced Economies (IMF)
  • [XS2] Emerging Asia (IMF)
  • [YE] Yemen
  • [ZA] South Africa
  • [ZM] Zambia
  • [ZW] Zimbabwe
[INDICATOR] Indicator
  • [GGCBP_G01_PGDP_PT] Cyclically adjusted primary balance (% of potential GDP)
  • [GGCB_G01_PGDP_PT] Cyclically adjusted balance (% of potential GDP)
  • [GGR_G01_GDP_PT] Revenue (% of GDP)
  • [GGXCNL_G01_GDP_PT] Net lending/borrowing (also referred as overall balance) (% of GDP)
  • [GGXONLB_G01_GDP_PT] Primary net lending/borrowing (also referred as primary balance) (% of GDP)
  • [GGXWDN_G01_GDP_PT] Net debt (% of GDP)
  • [G_XWDG_G01_GDP_PT] Gross debt (% of GDP)
  • [G_X_G01_GDP_PT] Expenditure (% of GDP)
Technical links